Staňte se členy

Odkazy a zdroje - R3i - Mezinárodní zdroje



Týden FH 2017
Zdravotníci během letošního Týdne FH (18. - 22. září) vyšetřili lipidový panel u více než 460 osob a .....

Sledujte záznam webináře z cyklu Otazníky v diagnostice a léčbě dyslipidemií
Třetí webinář on-line cyklu proběhl 12. září a pokud jste jej nestihli živě, nevadí, záznam najdete .....


Nejbližší akce

05. 10. 2017 - 06. 10. 2017
EAS Advanced Course on Precision Medicine in Atherosclerosis
Paříž, Francie

05. 10. 2017 - 07. 10. 2017
6th Central European Congress on Obesity and 15th Slovak Congress on Obesity
Hotel Crowne Plaza, Bratislava

11. 10. 2017 - 13. 10. 2017
EAS Advanced Course in Stable Isotope Tracers in Lipid Research
Nantes, Francie

Mezinárodní články

1. Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 2001;414:782−787.

2. O´Flaherty M, Ford E, Allender S, et al. Conorary heart disease trends in England and Wales from 1984 to 2004; concealed levelling of mortality rates among young adults. Heart 2008;94:178−181.

3. Ford ES, Capewell S. Coronary heart disease mortality among young adults in the US from 1980 through 2002: concealed leveling of mortality rates. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;50:2128−2132.

4. Cardiovascular disease statistics. American Heart Association,

5. European Heart Network. European cardiovascular disease statistics, 2008, (statistics).

6. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Final report. Circulation 2002;106:3143−3421.

7. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes − 2008. Diabetes Care 2008;31(suppl 1):S12−S54.

8. Smith SC Jr, Allen J, Blair SN, et al. AHA/ACC guidelines for secondary prevention for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2006 update: endorsed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Circulation 2006;113:2363−2372.

9. Buse JB, Ginsberg HN, Bakris GL, et al., American Diabetes Association. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in people with diabetes mellitus. A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association. Circulation 2007;115:114−126.

10. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts), Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary. Eur Heart J 2007;2375−2414.

11. Rydén L, Standl E, Bartnik M, et al., Task Force on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC): European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular disease: executive summary. The Task Force on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Eur Heart J 2007;28:88−136.

12. Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, et al. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2003;348:383−393.

13. Gaede P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Effect of a multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:580−591.

14. Baigent C, Keech A, Kearney PM, et al., Cholesterol Treatment Trialists´(CTT) Collaborators. Efficacy and safety of cholesterol-lowering treatment: prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 participants in 14 randomised trial of statins. Lancet 2005;366:1267−1278.

15. Cholesterol Treatment Trialists´(CTT) Collaborators, Kearney PM, Blackwell PM, Collins R, et al. Efficacy of cholesterol-lowering therapy in 18,686 people with diabetes in 14 randomised trial of statins: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2008;371:117−125.

16. LaRosa JC, Grundy SM, Waters DD, et al., Treating to New Targets (TNT) Investigators. Intensive lipid lowering with atorvastatin in patients with stable coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1425−1435.

17. Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, et al., Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction-22 Investigators. Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2004;350:1495−1504.

18. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al., INTERHEART Study Investigators. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004;364:937−952.

19. Austin MA, King MC, Vranizan KM, Krauss RM. Atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. A proposed genetic marker for coronary heart disease risk. Circulation 1990;82:495−506.

20. Ninomiya JK, L´Italien G, Criqui MH, et al. Association of the metabolic syndrome with history of myocardial infarction and stroke in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Circulation 2004;109:42−46.

21. Assmann G, Schulte H, Cullen P, Seedorf U. Assessing risk of myocardial infarction and stroke: new data from the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) study. Eur J Clin Invest 2007;37:925−932.

22. Assmann G, Schulte H, Seedorf U. Cardiovascular risk assessment in the metabolic syndrome. Results from the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) study. Int J Obes 2008;32:S11−S16.

23. Sarwar N, Danesh J, Eiriksdottir G, et al. Triglycerides and the risk of coronary heart disease: 10,158 incident cases among 262, 525 participants in 29 Western prospective studies. Circulation 2007;115:450−458.

24. Bansal S, Buring JE, Rifai N, et al. Fasting compared with nonfasting triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular events in women. JAMA 2007;298:309−316.

25. Nordestgaard BG, Benn M, Schnohr P, Tybjaerg-Hansen A. Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and death in men and women. JAMA 2007;298:299−308.

26. Assmann G. Dyslipdaemia and global cardiovascular risk: clinical issues. Eur Heart J Suppl 2006;8(suppl F):F40−F46.

27. Sniderman A, Vu H, Cianflone K. Effect of moderate hypertriglyceridemia on the relation of plasma total and LDL apo B levels. Atherosclerosis 1991;89:109−116.

28. St. Pierre AC, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, et al. Low-density lipoprotein subfractions and the long-term risk of ischemic heart disease in men: 13-year follow-up data from the Québec Cardiovascular Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005;25:533−539.

29. Walldius G, Jungner I, Holme I, et al. High apolipoprotein B, low apolipoprotein A-I, and improvement in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction (AMORIS study): a prospective study. Lancet 2001;358:2026−2033.

30. Shai I, Rimm EB, Hankinson SE, et al. Multivariate assessment of lipid parameters as predictors of coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women: potential implications for clinical guidelines. Circulation 2004;110:2824−2830.

31. Jiang R, Schulze MB, Li T, et al. Non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B predict cardiovascular disease events among men with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:1991−1997.

32. Pischon T, Girman CJ, Sacks FM, Rifai N, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in the prediction of coronary heart disease in men. Circulation 2005;112:3375−3383.

33. Gotto AM Jr, Whitney E, Stein EA, et al. Relation between baseline and on-treatment lipid parameters and first acute major coronary events in the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS). Circulation 2000;101:477−484.

34. Simes RJ, Marschner IC, Hunt D, et al.; LIPID Investigators. Relationship between lipid levels and clinical outcomes in the Longterm Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease (LIPID) Trial: to what extent is the reduction in coronary events with pravastatin explained by on-study lipid levels? Circulation 2002;105:1162−1169.

35. Van Lennep JE, Westerveld HT, Van Lennep HW, et al. Apolipoprotein concentrations during treatment and recurrent coronary artery disease events. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:2408−2513.

36. Kathiresan S, Otvos JD, Sullivan LM, et al. Increased small low-density lipoprotein particle number. A prominent feature of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2006;113:20−29.

37. Sacks FM, Campos H. Clinical review 163: Cardiovascular endocrinology: Low-density lipoprotein size and cardiovascular disease: a reappraisal. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:4525−4532.

38. Jungner I, Sniderman AD, Furberg C, et al. Does low-density lipoprotein size add to atherogenic particle number in predicting the risk of fatal myocardial infarction? Am J Cardiol 2006;97:943−946.

39. Brunzell JD, Davidson M, Furberg DC, et al.; American Diabetes Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation. Lipoprotein management in patients with cardiometabolic risk: consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Diabetes Care 2008;31:811−822.

40. Alaupovic P, Mack W, Knight-Gibson C, Hodis HN. The role of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein families in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions as determined by sequential coronary angiography from a controlled clinical trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:715−722.

41. Sacks FM, Alaupovic P, Moye LA, et al. VLDL, apolipoproteins B, CIII, and E and risk of recurrent coronary events in the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) trial. Circulation 2000;102:1886−1892.

42. Lee Sj, Campos H, Moye LA, Sacks FM. LDL containing apolipoprotein CIII is an independent risk factor for coronary events in diabetic patients. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003;23:853−858.

43. Chivot L, Mainard F, Bigot E, et al. Logistic discriminant analysis of lipids and apolipoproteins in a population of coronary bypass patients and the significance of apolipoproteins CIII and E. Atherosclerosis 1990;82:205−211.

44. Luc G, Fievet C, Arveiler D, et al. Apolipoproteins CIII and E in apoB and non-apoB-containing lipoproteins in two populations at contrasting risk for myocardial infarction: the ECTIM study. Etude Cas Témoins sur ´Infarctus du Myocarde. J Lipid Res 1996;37:508−517.

45. Blankenhorn DH, Alaupovic P, Wickham E, et al. Prediction of angiographic change in native human coronary arteries and aortocoronary bypass grafts. Circulation 1990;81:470−476.

46. Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Azen JP, et al. Triglyceride- and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins have a differential effect on mild/moderate and severe lesion progression as assessed by quantitative coronary angiography in a controlled trial of lovastatin. Circulation 1994;90:42−49.

47. Olivieri O, Bassi A, Stranieri C, et al. Apolipoprotein C-III, metabolic syndrome, and risk of coronary artery disease. J Lipid Res 2003;44:2374−2381.

48. Onat A, Hergenc G, Sansoy V, et al. Apolipoprotein C-III, a strong discriminant of coronary risk in men and a determinant of the metabolic syndrome in both genders. Atherosclerosis 2003;168:81−89.

49. Cohn JS, Patterson BW, Uffleman KD, et al. Rate of production of plasma and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) of production of VLDL-triglyceride in male subjects with different body weights and levels of insulin sensitivity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:3949−3955.

50. Campos H, Perlov D, Khoo C, Sacks FM. Distinct patterns of lipoproteins with apoB defined by presence of apoE or apoCIII in hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. J Lipid Res 2001;42:1239−1249.

51. Juntii-Berggren L, Refai E, Appelskog I, et al. Apolipoprotein CIII promotes Ca2+-dependent beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101:10090−10094.

52. Chen M, Breslow JL, Li W, Leff T. Transcriptional regulation of the apoC-III gene by insulin in diabetic mice: correlation with changes in plasma triglyceride levels. J Lipid Res 1994;35:1918−1924.

53. Klein RL, McHenry MB, Lok KH, et al.; DCCT/EDIC Research Group. Apolipoprotein CIII protein concentrations and gene polymorphisms in Type 1 diabetes: associations with microvascular disease complications in the DCCT/EDIC cohort. J Diabetes Complicatons 2005;19:18−25.

54. Kawakami A, Aikawa M, Libby P, et al. Apolipoprotein CIII in apolipoprotein B lipoproteins enhances the adhesion of human monocystic cells to endothelial cells. Circulation 2006;113:691−700.

55. Kawakami A, Aikawa M, Alcaide P, et al. Apolipoprotein CIII induces expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in vascular endothelial cells and increases adhesion of monocytic cells. Circulation 2006;114:681−687.

56. Kawakami A, Aikawa M, Nitta N, et al. Apolipoprotein CIII – induced THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells involves pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein- and protein kinase C-alpha-mediated nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2007;27:219−225.

57. Birjmohun RS, Dallinga-Thie GM, Kuivenhoven JA, et al. Apolipoprotein A-II is inversely associated with risk of future coronary artery disease. Circulation 2007;116:2029−2035.

58. Stampfer MJ, Sacks FM, Salvini S, et al. A prospective study of cholesterol, apolipoproteins, and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1991;325:373−381.

59. Ballantyne CM, Olsson AG, Cook TJ, et al. Influence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated triglyceride on coronary heart disease events and response to simvastatin therapy in 4S. Circulation 2001;104:3046−3051.

60. Barter PJ, Gotto AM, LaRosa JC, et al.; Treating to New Targets Investigators. HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med 2007;357:1301−1310.

61. Miller M, Cannon CP, Murphy SA, et al.; PROVE-IT TIMI 22 Investigators. Impact of triglyceride levels beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after acute coronary syndrome in the PROVE-IT TIMI 22 trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:724−730.

62. Jenkins AJ, Rowley KG, Lyons TJ, et al. Lipoproteins and diabetic microvascular complications. Curr Pharm Des 2004;10:3395−3418.

63. Chew EY, Klein ML, Ferris FL 3rd, et al. Association of elevated serum lipid levels with retinal hard exudate in diabetic retinopathy. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) Report 22. Arch Ophthalmol 1996;114:1079−1084.

64. Ucgun NI, Yildirim Z, Kilic N, Gürsel E. The importace of serum lipids in exudative diabetic macular edema in type 2 diabetic patients. Ann NY Acad Sci 2007;1100:213−217.

65. Chowdhury TA, Hopkins D, Dodson PM, Vafidis GC. The role of serum lipids in exudative diabetic maculopathy: is there a place for lipid-lowering therapy? Eye 2002;16:689−693.

66. Davis MD, Fisher MR, Gangnon RE, et al. Risk factors for high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and severe visual loss. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Report 18. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1998;39:233−252.

67. Lyons TJ, Jenkins AJ, Zheng D, et al. Diabetic retinopathy and serum lipoprotein subclasses in the DCCT/EDIC cohort. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004;45:910−918.

68. Caramori ML, Fioretto P, Mauer M. The need for early predictors of diabetic nephropathy risk. Is albumin excretion rate sufficient? Diabetes 2000;49:1399−1408.

69. Retnakaran R, Cull CA, Thorne KI, et al.; UKPDS Study Group. Risk factors for renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetes: UK Prospective Diabetes Study 74. Diabetes 2006;55:1832−1839.

70. Chaturvedi N, Fuller JH, Taskinen M-R, EURODIAB PCS Group. Differing associations of lipid and lipoprotein disturbances with the macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001;24:2071−2077.

71. Jenkins AJ, Lyons TJ, Zheng D, et al.; DCCT/EDIC Research Group. Lipoproteins in the DCCT/EDIC Research Group: associations with diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int 2003;64:817−828.

72. Molitch ME, Rupp D, Carnethon M. Higher levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a decreased likelihood of albuminuria in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006;29:78−82.

73. Tesfaye S, Chaturvedi N, Eaton SE, et al.; EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study Group. Vascular risk factors and diabetic neuropathy. N Engl J Med 2005;352:341−350.

74. Kempler P, Tesfaye S, Chaturvedi N, et al., EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study Group. Autonomic neuropathy is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors: the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study. Diabet Med 2002;19:900−909.

75. Delerive P, Fruchart JC, Staels B. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in inflammation kontrol. J Endocrinol 2001;169:453–459.

76. Fruchart JC, Duriez P, Staels B. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activators regulate genes governing lipoprotein metabolism, vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol 199;10:245−247.

77. Pettersson C, Fogelstrand L, Rosengren B, et al. Increased lipolysis by secretory phospholipase A2 group V of lipoproteins in diabetic dyslipidemia. J Internal Med 2008;264:155-65.

78. Kontush A, Chapman MJ. Functionally defective high-density lipoprotein: a new therapeutic target at the crossroads of dyslipidaemia, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Pharmacol Rev 2006;58:342−374.

79. De Souza JA, Vindis C, Hansel B, et al. Metabolic syndrome features small, apolipoprotein A-I-poor, triglyceride-rich HDL3 particles with defective anti-apoptotic activity. Atherosclerosis 2008;197:84−94.

80. Miller GJ, Martin JC, Mitropoulos KA, et al. Plasma factor VII is activated by postprandial triglyceridaemia, irrespective of dietary fat composition. Atherosclerosis 1991;86:163−171.

81. Silveria A, Karpe F, Johnsson H, et al. In vivo demonstration in humans that large postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins activate coagulation factor VII through the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996;16:1333−1339.

82. Maede TW, Mellows S, Brozovic M, et al. Heamostatic fiction and ischaemic heart disease: principal results of the Northwick Park Heart Study. Lancet 1986;2:533−537.

83. De Stavola BL, Meade TW. Long-term effects of hemostatic variables on fatal coronary heart disease: 30-year results from the first prospective Northwick Park Heart Study (NPHS-I). J Thromb Haemost 2007;5:461−471.

84. Juhan-Vague I, Morange P, Frere C, et al. The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-675 4G/5G genotype influences the risk of myocardial infarction associated with elevated plasma proinsulin and insulin concentrations in men from Europe: the HIFMECH study. J Thromb Haemostas 2003;1:2322−2329.

85. Asplund-Carlson A, Hamsten A, Wiman B, Carlson LA. Relationship between plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and VLDL triglyceride concentration, insulin levels and insulin sensitivity: studies in randomly selected normo- and hypertriglyceridaemic men. Diabetologia 1993;36:817–825.

86. Dichtl W, Ares MP, Stollenwerk M, et al. In vivo stimulation of vascular plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production by very low-density lipoprotein involves transcription factor binding to a VLDL-responsive element. Thromb Haemostas 2000;84:706–711.

87. American Heart Association Nutrition Committee, Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Brands M, et al. Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation 2006;114:82–96.

88. Trichopoulou A, Costacou T, Bamia C, Trichopoulous D. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2599–2608.

89. Trichopoulou A, Bamia C, Trichopoulous D. Mediterranean diet and survival among patients with coronary heart disease in Greece. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:929–935.

90. Giugliano D, Esposito K. Mediterranean diet and metabolic diseases. Curr Opin Lipidol 2008;19:63–68.

91. McKellar G, Morrison E, McEntegart A, et al. A pilot study of a Mediterranean-type diet intervention in fiale patients with rheumatoid arthritis living in areas of social deprivation in Glasgow. Ann Rheum Dis 2007;66:1239–1243.

92. Gao X, Chen H, Fung TT, et al. Prospective study of dietary patterns and risk of Parkinson disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1486–1494.

93. Scarmeas N, Luchsinger JA, Mayeux R, Stern Y. Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer disease mortality. Neurology 2007;69:1084–1093.

94. Trichopoulou A, Kouris-Blazos A, Wahlqvist ML, et al. Diet and overall survival in the elderly. BMJ 1995;311:1457–1460.

95. Esposito K, Marfella R, Ciotola M, et al. Effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on endothelial dysfunction and markers of vascular inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. JAMA 2004;292:1440–1446.

96. Appel LJ, Sacks FM, Carey VJ, et al.; OmniHeart Collaborative Research Group. Effects of protein, monosaturated fat, and carbohydrate intake on blood pressure and serum lipids: results of the OmnilHeart randomized trial. JAMA 2005;294:2455–2464.

97. Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, et al.; Dash-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 2001;344:3–10.

98. Parikh P, McDaniel MC, Ashen MD, et al. Diets and cardiovascular disease: an evidence-based assessment. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:1379–1387.

99. De Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. Mediterranean alphalinolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet 1994;343:1454–1459.

100. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sporavvivenza nell´Infarto miocardico. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Lancet 1999;354:447–455.

101. Marchioli R, Barzi F, Bomba E, et al.; GISSI-Prevenzione Investigators. Early protection against sudden death by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids after myocardial infarction: time course analysis of the results of the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell´Infarto miocardio (GISSI)-Prevenzione. Circulation 2002;105:1897–1903.

102. Sacks FM, Katan M. Randomised clinical trials on the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. Am J Med 2002;113(suppl 9b):13S–24S.

103. Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:1146–1155.

104. Garg A. High-monounsaturated fat diet for diabetic patients. Is it time to chase the current dietary recommendations? Diabetes Care 1994;17:242–246.

105. Covas MI, Nyyssonen K, Poulsen HE, et al., EUROLIVE Study Group. The effect of polyphenols in olive oil on heart disease risk factors: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2006;145:333–341.

106. Laaksonen DE, Nyyssönen K, Niskanen L, et al. Prediction of cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged men by dietary and serum linoleic and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:193–196.

107. Campos H, Baylin A, Willett WC. Alpha linolenic acid and risk of nofatal myocardial infarction. Circulation 2008;118:339–345.

108. Forsythe CE, Phinney SD, Fernandez ML, et al. Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation. Lipids 2008;43:65–77.

109. Bassuk SS, Manson JE. Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. J Appl Physiol 2005;99:1193–1304.

110. Jeon CY, Lokken RP, Hu FB, van Dam RM. Physial activity of moderate intensity and risk of type 2 diabetes. A systematic review. Diabetes Care 2007;30:744–752.

111. Trichopoulou A, Psaltopoulou T, Orfanos P, Trichopoulos D. Diet and physical activity in relation to overall mortality amonit adult diabetics in a general population cohort. J Intern Med 2006; 259:583–591.

112. Weinstein AR, Sesso HD, Lee IM, et al. The joint effects of physical activity and body mass index on coronary heart disease risk in women. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168:884–890.

113. DeFronzo RA, Sherwin RS, Kraemer N. Effect of physical training on insulin action in obesity. Diabetes 1987;36:1379–1385.

114. Thomas DE, Elliott EJ, Naughton GA. Exercise for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database System Rev 2006;3:CD002968.

115. Sigal RJ, Kenny GP, Boule NG, et al. Effects of aerobic training, resistence training, or both on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2007;147:357–369.

116. Kraus WE, Houmard JA, Duscha BD, et al. Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1483–1492.

117. Koclama S, Tanaka S, Saito K, et al. Effect of aerobic exercise training on serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:999–1008.

118. Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Tran ZV. Exercise, lipids, and lipoproteins in older adults. A meta-analysis. Prev Cardiol 2005;8:206–214.

119. Kelley GA, Kelley KS. Aerobic exercise and lipids and lipoproteins in children and adolescents. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Atherosclerosis 2007;191:447–453.

120. Stewart KJ, Bacher AC, Turner K, et al. Exercise and risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in older adults. Am J Prev Med 2005;28:9–18.

121. Whelton SP, Chin A, Xin X, He J. Effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Intern Med 2002;136:493–503.

122. Wolff I, van Croonenborg JJ, Kemper HC, et al. The effect of exercise training programs on bone mass: a meta-analysis of published controlled trials in pre- and postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:1–12.

123. Hassmen P, Koivula N, Uutela A. Physical exercise and psychological well-being: a population study in Finland. Prev Med 2000;30:17–25.

124. Duncan GE, Anton SD, Sydeman SJ, et al. Prescribing exercise at varied levels of intensity and frequency: A randomized trial. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:2362–2369.

125. Laaksonen DE, Lindstorm J, Lakka TA et al., Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Physical activity in the prevention of type 2 diabetes: the Finnish diabetes prevention study. Diabetes 2005;54:158–165.

126. Johnson JL, Slenz CA, Houmard JA, et al. Exercise training amount and intensity effects on metabolic syndrome (from Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise). Am J Cardiol 2007;100:1759–1766.

127. O´Keefe JH, Bybee KA, Lavie CJ. Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the razor-sharp double-edge sword. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007;50:1009–1014.

128. Ginsberg H, Olefsky J, Farquar J, Reaven G. Moderate etanol ingestion and plasma triglyceride levels. Ann Intern Med 1974;80:143–149.

129. Crouse JR, Grundy SM. Effects of alcohol on plasma lipoproteins and cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in man. J Lipid Res 1984;25:486–496.

130. Chiuve SE, McCullough ML, Sacks FM, Rimm EB. Healthy lifestyle factors in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease among men: benefits among users and nonusers of lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive medications. Circulation 2006;114:160–167.

131. The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial results. I. Reduction in incidence of coronary heart disease. JAMA 1984;251:351–364.

132. Rossebo AB, Perdersen TR, Borman K, et al. Intensive lipid lowering with simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1343–1356.

133. Peto R, Emberson J, Landray M, et al. Analyse of cancer data from free ezetimibe trials. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1357–1366.

134. Drazen JM, D´Agostino RB, Ware JH, et al. Ezetimibe and cancer – an uncertain association. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1398–1399.

135. Pourcet B, Fruchart JC, Staels B, Glineur C. Selective PPAR modulators, dual and pan PPAR agonists: multimodal drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2006;11:379–401.

136. Frick MH, Elo O, Haapa K, et al. Helsinki Heart Study: primary prevention trial with gemfibrozil in middle-aged men with dyslipidemia. Safety of treatment, changes in risk factors, and incidence of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1987;317:1237–1245.

137. Rubins HB, Robins SJ, Collins D, et al. Gemfibrozil for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men with low levels of highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol. Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Intervention Trial Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999;341:410–418.

138. The Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) study group. Secondary prevention by rating HDL cholesterol and reducing triglycerides in patients with coronary artery disease. The Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention (BIP) study. Circulation 2000;102:21–27.

139. Keech A, Simes RJ, Barter P, et al. The FIELD study investigators. Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:1849–1861.

140. Gross B, Staels B. PPAR agonists: multimodal drugs for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;21:687–710.

141. Staels B, Fruchart JC. Therapeutic roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists. Diabetes 2005;54:2460–2470.

142. Ooi TC, Cousins M, Ooi DS, Nakajima K, Edwards AL. Effect of fibrates on postprandial remnant-like particles in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis 2004;172:375–382.

143. Rosenson RS, Wolff DA, Huskin AL, et al. Fenofibrate therapy ameliorates fasting and postprandial lipoproteinemia, oxidative stress, and the inflammatory response in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia and the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 2007;30:1945–1951.

144. Duez H, Lefebvre B, Poulain P, et al. Regulation of human apo A-I by gemfibrozil and fenofibrate through selective peroxisome proliferator-actived receptor alpha modulation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005;25:585–591.

145. Chapman MJ. Fibrates in 2003. Therapeutic action in atherogenic dyslipidemia and future perspectives. Atherosclerosis 2003;171:1–13.

146. Ooi TC, Heinonen T, Alaupovic P, et al. Efficacy and safety of a new hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin, in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Comparison with fenofibrate. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997;17:1793–1799.

147. Lamendola C, Abbasi F, Chu JW, et al. Comparative effects of rosuvastatin and gemfibrozil on glukose, insulin, and lipid metabolism in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic patients with combined dyslipidemia. Am J Cardiol 2005;95:189–193.

148. Wagner JA, Larson PJ, Weiss S, et al. Individual and combined effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and (gamma) agonists, fenofibrate and rosiglitazone, on biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism in healthy nondiabetic volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 2005;45:504–513.

149. Davidson MH, Bays HE, Stein E, et al.; TRIMS Investigators. Effects of fenofibrate on atherogenic dyslipidemia in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Clin Cardiol 2006;29:268–273.

150. Rosenson RS, Huskin AL, Wolff DA, et al. Fenofibrate reduces fasting and postprandial inflammatory responses among hypertriglyceridemia patients with the metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis 2008;198:381–388.

151. Coronary Drug Project Research Group. Clofibrate and niacin in coronary heart disease. JAMA 1975;231:360–381.

152. Committee of Principal Investigators. A cooperative trial in the prevention of ischemic heart disease using clofibrate. Br Heart J 1978;40:1069–1118.

153. Tenkanen L, Mantarri M, Manninen V. Some coronary risk factors related to the insulin resistence syndrome and treatment with gemfibrozil: experience from the Helsinki Heart Study. Circulation 1995;92:1779–1785.

154. Rubins HB, Robins SJ, Collins D, et al. Diabetes, plasma insulin, and cardiovascular disease: subgroup analysis from the Department of Veterans Affairs high-density lipoprotein intervention trial (VA-HIT). Arch Intern Med 2002;162:2597–2604.

155. Tenebaum A, Motro M, Fisman EZ, et al. Bezafibrate for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction in patients with metabolic syndrome. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1154–1160.

156. Scott R, d´Emden M, Best J, et al.; on behalf of the FIELD Investigators. Features of metabolic syndrome identify individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus at high risk for cardiovascular events and greater absolute benefits of fenofibrate. Circulation 2007;116:II_838. Abstract 3691.

157. Arthur JB, Ashby DWR, Bremer C, et al. Trial of clofibrate in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease. Five-year study by a group of physicians of the Newcastle upon Tyne region. BMJ 1971;4:767–775.

158. Research Committee of the Scottish Society of Physicians. Ischaemic heart disease: a secondary prevention trial using clofibrate. Report by a Research Committee of the Scottish Society of Physicians. BMJ 1971;4:775–784.

159. Keech A, Simes J, Barter P, et al.; FIELD Management Committee. Correction to the FIELD study report. Lancet 2006;368:1415(letter).

160. Grundy SM, Vega GL, Yuan Z, et al. Effectiveness and tolerability of simvastatin plus fenofibrate for combined hyperlipidemia (the SAFARI trial). Am J Cardiol 2005;95:462–468.

161. Athyros VG, Papageorgiou AA, Athyrou VV, et al. Atorvastatin and micronized fenofibrate alone and in combination in type 2 diabetes with combined hyperlipidemia. Diabetes Care 2002;25:1198–1202.

162. Alsheikh-Ali AA, Kuvin JT, Karas RH. Risk of adverse events with fibrates. Am J Cardiol 2004;94:935–938.

163. Rosenson RS. Current overview of statin-induced myopathy. Am J Med 2004;116:408–416.

164. Gaist D, Rodriguez LA, Huerta C, et al. Lipid-lowering drugs and risk of myopathy: a population-based follow-up study. Epidemiology 2001;12:565–569.

165. Jones PH, Davidson MH. Reporting rate of rhabdomyolysis with fenofibrate + statin versus gemfibrozil + any statin. Am J Cardiol 2005;95:120–122.

166. Prueksaritanont T, Tang C, Qui y, et al. Effects of fibrates on metabolism of statins in human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos 2002;30:1280–1287.

167. Davidson MH, Armani A, McKenney JM, Jacobson TA. Safety considerations with fibrate therapy. Am J Cardiol 2007;99(suppl. 6A):3C–18C.

168. Ansquer JC, Foucher C, Rattier S, et al.; DAIS Investigators. Fenofibrate reduces progression to microalbuminuria over 3 years in a placebo-controlled study in type 2 diabetes: results from the Diabetes Atherosclerosis Intervention Study (DAIS). Am J Kidney Dis 2005;45:485–493.

169. Ginsberg HN, Bonds D, Lovato LC, et al.; ACCORD Study Group. Evolution of the lipid trial protocol of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Am J Cardiol 2007;99(suppl. 12A):56i–76i.

170. Morgan JM, Capuzzi DM, Guyton JR, et al. Treatment effect of Niaspan, a controlled-release niacin, in patients with hypercholesterolemia: a placebo-controlled trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 1996;1:195–202.

171. Goldberg A, Alagona P Jr, Capuzzi DM, et al. Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:1100–1105.

172. Luc G, Bard JM, Arveiler D, et al.; PRIME Study Group. Lipoprotein(a) as a predictor of coronary heart disease: the PRIME study. Atheroclerosis 2002;163:377–384.

173. Von Eckardstein A, Schulte H, Cullen P, Assmann G. Lipoprotein(a) further increases the risk of coronary events in men with high global cardiovascular risk. J Am Cardiol 2001;37:434–439.

174. Danesh J, Collins R, Peto R. Lipoprotein(a) and coronary heart disease. Meta-analysis of prospective studies. Circulation 2000;102:1082–1085.

175. McCormack PL, Keating GM. Prolonged-release nicotinic acid. A review of its use in the treatment of dyslipidaemia. Drugs 2005;65:2719–2740.

176. Morgan JM, Capuzzi DM, Baksh RI, et al. Effects of extended-release niacin on lipoprotein subclass distribution. Am J Cardiol 2003;91:1432–1436.

177. Pan J, Lin M, Kesala RL, et al. Niacin treatment of the atherogenic lipid profile and Lp(a) in diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab 2002;4:255–261.

178. Karpe F, Frayn KN. The nicotinic acid receptor – a new mechanism for an old drug. Lancet 2004;363:1892–1894.

179. Soudijn W, van Wijngaarden I, Ijzerman AP. Nicotinic acid receptor subtypes and their ligands. Med Res Rev 2007;27:417–433.

180. Wang W, Basinger A, Neese RA, et al. Effect of nicotinic acid administration on hepatic very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride production. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;280:E540–E547.

181. Kamanna VS, Kashyap ML. Mechanism of action of niacin on lipoprotein metabolism. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2000;2:36–46.

182. Stepherd J, Packard CJ, Patsch JR, et al. Effect of nicotinic acid therapy on plasma high density lipoprotein subfraction distribution and composition and on apolipoprotein A metabolism. J Clin Invest 1979;63:858–867.

183. Hernandez M, Wright SD, Cai TQ. Critical role of cholesterol ester transfer protein in nicotinic acid-mediated HDL elevation in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007;355:1075–1080.

184. Rosenson RS. Antiatherothrombotic effects of nicotinic acid. Athero 2003;171:87–96.

185. Pastemark RC, Brown LE, Stone PH, et al. Effect of combination therapy with lipid-reducing drugs in patients with coronary heart disease and ‘normal’ cholesterol levels. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Harvard Atherosclerosis Reversibility Project (HARP) Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:529–540.

186. McKenney JM, Jones PH, Bays HE, et al. Comparative effects on lipid levels of combination therapy with a statin and extended-release niacin or ezetimibe versus a statin alone (the COMPELL study). Atherosclerosis 2007;192:432–437.

187. Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, et al. Fifteen year mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients: long-term benefit with niacin. J Am Coll Cardiol 1986;8:1245–1255.

188. Canner PL, Furberg CD, Terrin ML, McGovern ME. Benefits of niacin by glycemic status in patients with healed myocardial infarction (from the Coronary Drug Project). Am J Cardiol 2005;95:254–257.

189. Brown G, Albers JJ, Fisher LD, et al. Regression of coronary artery disease as a result of intensive lipid-lowering therapy in men with high levels of apolipoprotein B. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1289–1298.

190. Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, et al. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins, or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. N Engl J Med 2001;345:1583–1592.

191. Brown G. Expert commentary: niacin safety. Am J Cardiol 2007;99(suppl 6A). 32C–34C.

192. Guyton JR, Bays HE. Safety considerations with niacin therapy. Am J Cardiol 2007;99(suppl 6A):22C–31C.

193. Lai E, De Lepeleire I, Crumley TM, et al. Suppression of niacin-induced vasodilation with an antagonist to prostaglandin D2 receptor subtype 1. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007;81:849–857.

194. Maccubbin D, Sirah W, Betteridge A. Lipid-altering efficacy and tolerability profile of extended release niacin/laropiprant in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed hyperlipidemia. Eur Heart J 2007;28(abstract suppl):108. Abstract P715.

195. Grundy SM, Vega GL, McGovern ME, et al. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-daily niacin for the treatment of dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes: results of the Assessment of Diabetes Control and Evaluation of the Efficacy of Niaspan Trial. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1568–1576.

196. Ginsberg HN, Niacin in the metabolic syndrome: more risk than benefit? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 2006;2:300–331.

197. Clinical Trial: AIM HIGH: Niacin plus statin to prevent vascular events. Available from

198. Treatment of HDL to reduce the incidence of vascular events. HPs2-THRIVE. Available from www.clinicaltrialsgov.ct/show/NCT00461.

199. Harris WS, Connor WE, Alam N, Illingworth DR. Reduction of postprandial triglyceridemia in humans by dietary n-3 fatty acids. J Lipid Res 1988;29:1451–1460.

200. Montori VM, Farmer A, Wollan PC, Dinheen SF. Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systemic review. Diabetes Care 2000;23:1407–1415.

201. Sethi S, Ziouzenkova O, Ni H, et al. Oxidized omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil inhibit leukocyte-endothelial interactions through activation of PPAR alpha. Blood 2002;100:1340–1346.

202. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ; American Heart Association, Nutrition Committee. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002;106:2747–2757.

203. Secondary prevention in primary and secondary care for patients following a myocardial infarction. Clinical guideline. May 2007. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

204. Nambi V, Ballantyne CM. Combination therapy with statins and omega-3 fatty acids. Am J Cardiol 2006;98(suppl 4A):34i–38i.

205. Leaf A, Kang JX, Xiao YF. Omega-3 fatty acids and ventricular arrhythmias. World Rev Nutr Diet 2005;94:129–138.

206. Leaf A. Omega-3 fatty acids and prevention of arrhythmias. Curr Opin Lipidol 2007;18:31–34.

207. Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al.; Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) Investigators. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 2007;369:1090–1098.

208. GISSI-HF Investigators. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with chronic heart silure (the GISSI-HF trial): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2008;372:1223–1230.

209. Goldberg RB. Impact of thiazolidenediones on serum lipoprotein levels. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2006;8:397–404.

210. Bolen S, Feldman L, Vassy J, et al. Systematic review: comparative effectiveness and safety of oral medications for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2007;147:386–399.

211. Dormandy JA, Charbonnel B, Eckland DJ, et al.; PROactive Investigators. Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial in macroVascular Events): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:1279–1289.

212. Nissen SE, Nicholls SJ, Wolski K, et al.; PERISCOPE Investigators. Comparison of pioglitazone vs glimepiride on progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes: the PERISCOPE randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008;299:1561–1573.

213. Barter P, Caulfield M, Eriksson M, et al.; ILLUMINATE Investigators. Effects of torcetrapib in patients at high risk for coronary events. New Eng J Med 2007;357:2109–2122.

214. Scheen AJ, Finer N, Hollander P, et al.; RIO-Diabetes Study Group. Efficacy and tolerability of rimonabant in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled study. Lancet 2006;368:1660–1672.

215. Després JP, Golay A, Sjöström L, Rimonabant in Obesity-Lipids Study Group. Effects of rimonabant on metabolic risk factors in overweight patients with dyslipidemia. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2121–2134.

216. Hennes S, Robinson DM, Lyseng-Williamson KA. Rimonabant. Drugs 2006;66:2109–2119.

217. Nissen SE, Nicholls SJ, Wolski K, et al., STRADIVARIUS Investigators. Effect of rimonabant on progression of atherosclerosis in patients with abdominal obesity and coronary artery disease: the STRADIVARIUS randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008;299:1547–1560.

218. Christensen R, Kristensen PK, Bartels EM, et al. Efficacy and safety of the weight-loss drug rimonabant: a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Lancet 2007;370:1706–1713.

219. Bantle JP, Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AL, et al. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes – 2006: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2006;29:2140–2155.

220. The Advance Collaborative Group. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2560–2572.

221. ADVANCE Collaborative Group; Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, et al. Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the ADVANCE trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007;370:829–840.

222. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;358:2545–2559.

223. Collins R, Armitage J, Parish S, et al.; Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin in 5963 people with diabetes: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361:2005–2016.

224. Tonelli M, Isles C, Craven T, et al. Effect of pravastatin on rate of kidney function loss in people with or at risk for coronary disease. Circulation 2005;112:171–178.

225. Sandhu S, Wiebe N, Fried LF, Tonelli M. Statins for improving renal outcomes: a meta-analysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:2006–2016.

226. Douglas K, O´Malley PG, Jackson JL. Meta-analysis: the effect of statins on albuminuria. Ann Intern Med 2006;145:117–124.

227. Stepherd J, Kastelein JJ, Bittner V, et al.; Treating to New Targets Investigators. Effect of intensive lipid lowering with atorvastatin on renal function in patients with coronary heart disease: the Treating to New Targets (TNT) study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007;2:1131–1139.

228. Smulders YM, Rakic M, Stehouwer CD, Weijers JN, Slaats EH, Silberbusch J. Determinants of progression of microalbuminuria in patients with NIDDM: a prospective study. Diabetes Care 1997;20:999–1005.

229. Dodson PM. Medical treatment for diabetic retinopathy: do the FIELD microvascular study results support a role for lipid lowering? Practical Diabetes 2008;25:76–79.

230. Gupta A, Gupta V, Thapar S, Bhansali A. Lipid-lowering drug atorvastatin as an adjunct in the management of diabetic macular edema. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;137:675–682.

231. Keech AC, Mitchell P, Summanen PA, et al.; FIELD Study Investigators. Effect of fenofibrate on the need for laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy (FIELD study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007;370:1687–1697.

232. Simó R, Hernández C. Fenofibrate for diabetic retinopathy. Lancet 2007;370:1667–1668.

233. Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. The prevalence of retinopathy in impaired glucose tolerance and recent-onset diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program. Diabet Med 2007;24:137–144.

234. Chew EY, Ambrosius WT, Howard LT, et al., ACCORD Study Group. Rationale, design and methods of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Eye Study (ACCORD-EYE). Am J Cardiol 2007;99(suppl 12A):103i–111i.

235. Cameron N, Cotter M, Inkster M, Nangle M. Looking to the future: diabetic neuropathy and effects of rosuvastatin on neuromuscular function. Diab Res Clin Pract 2003;61(suppl 1):S35–S39.

236. Gulcan E, Gulcan A, Erbilen E, Toker S. Statins may be useful in diabetic foot ulceration treatment and prevention. Med Hypotheses 2007;69:1313–1315.

237. Coste TC, Gerbi A, Vague P, et al. Neuroprotective effect of docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes 2003;52:2578–2585.

238. Gerbi A, Maixent J-M, Ansaldi J-L, et al. Fish oil supplementation prevents diabetes-induced nerve conduction velocity and neuroanatomical changes in rats. J Nutr 1999;129:207–213.

239. Davis TM, Yeap BB, Davis WA, Bruce DG. Lipid-lowering therapy and peripheral sensory neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. The Fremantle Diabetes Study. Diabetologia 2008;51:562–566.

240. Okuda Y, Mizutani M, Ogawa M, et al. Long-term effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy and serum lipids in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Complications 1996;10:280–287.

241. Burgess D, Hunt D, Li LP, et al.; on behalf of the FIELD Investigators. Effects of fenofibrate on silent myocardial infarction, hospitalization for acute coronary syndromes and amputation in type 2 diabetes. The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study. Circulation 2007;116:II_838(abstract).